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Combining BIM and GIS to build a smart city and its application

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According to the level of urbanization, the city is divided into five generations: the first generation is the original city, the second generation is the urbanized city...

1. What is a smart city?


According to the level of urbanization, the city is divided into five generations: the first generation is the original city, the second generation is the urbanized city, the third generation is the suburbanized city, the fourth generation is the gridded city, and the fifth generation is the intelligent city. A gridded city, also known as a smart city.


Smart city is a new stage of urban development. It uses a gridded sensor network as its nerve ending, forming a self-organizing, adaptive and evolutionary intelligent life. At the present stage, the primary stage of a smart city is a digital city, which is an important goal of the city in the development stage of information technology. It can be simply understood as the use of information management and communication technologies to sense, analyze, and integrate key information of the core system of urban operation. It is used to realize smart management and operation of cities through software and hardware equipment, and then create for people in the city. A better life and promote the harmonious and sustainable development of the city.


2.BIM and GIS


BIM is a digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a facility (construction project), a shared knowledge resource that shares information about the facility and provides a reliable representation of all decisions in the facility's lifecycle from construction to demolition. Based on the process, at different stages of the project, different stakeholders insert, extract, update and modify information in BIM to support and reflect the collaborative work of their respective responsibilities. BIM technology is to build the building model based on the relevant information data of the construction project as the basis of the model. It has five characteristics of visualization, coordination, simulation, optimization and drawing. Simply put, BIM is the digital information model of a building, and BIM technology is a technology based on this information to develop digital models and design, build and manage projects.


Geographic Information System (GIS) is a specific and important spatial information system. It is a technical system geographic information system (GIS) that collects, stores, manages, calculates, analyzes, displays and describes geographically distributed data in all or part of the Earth's surface (including the atmosphere) with the support of computer hardware and software systems. Technology is a spatial information analysis technology that has developed rapidly in recent years. It plays a leading role in resource and environmental applications.


GIS technology can not only effectively manage various resource and environment information with spatial attributes, but also conduct rapid and repeated analysis and testing of resource environment management and practice modes, which is convenient for making decision-making, conducting scientific and policy standard evaluation, and effectively Dynamic monitoring and analysis of resource and environmental conditions and changes in production activities during the period significantly improved work efficiency and economic efficiency, and provided technical support for solving resource and environmental problems and ensuring sustainable development. GIS is a system that acquires a large amount of geographic information by using a computer and processes it in a variety of ways, and GIS technology is a technology that solves practical problems through the processing results of this system.


3. The integration of BIM and GIS


There is no substitute between BIM and GIS, but it is more inclined to a complementary relationship. The emergence of GIS laid the foundation for the intelligent development of the city. The emergence of BIM attached the overall information of urban buildings. The combination of the two created a virtual city model with a large amount of urban information, which is the basis of smart cities. . In general, BIM is used to integrate and manage all phases of the building itself, and GIS is to integrate and manage the external environment of the building. The exchange and combination of BIM information in the microscopic field and GIS information in the macroscopic field plays an irreplaceable role in the realization of smart city construction.


The value that GIS and BIM-based integration and integration can bring to humanswill be enormous and the direction will be clear. In the international arena, experts and scholars from all countries are more optimistic about smart cities and vigorously advocate construction. The smart city based on the combination of BIM and GIS will be a fusion of mature technologies. It also includes accurate urban 3D modeling, developed urban sensor network, real-time urban flow monitoring, making people's lives in the city smarter and more convenient. . From satellite remote sensing to geographic information, and then from digital cities to smart cities, our cities will become more intelligent as science and technology advance.


4. Smart city based on BIM and GIS


After the integration of GIS and BIM, the application fields are very broad, including several aspects: urban and landscape planning, architectural design and management, tourism and leisure activities, environmental simulation, thermal conduction simulation, disaster management, and three-dimensional navigation.


5. Urban landscape planning


Using GIS and BIM, we can build a regionally complete urban system model with detailed information about the attached buildings and roads, such as: design unit, construction unit, construction time, usage time, age, building status, construction materials, roads Connection, etc. When the road is damaged, we can quickly find out the information of the road from the model, contact the construction unit, material supplier, and connected roads to reasonably ease the traffic flow, repair the damaged road section as soon as possible, and resume traffic.


When planning the design of the city, the model can be modeled, placed in the current system model, simulate the rationality of urban traffic flow, inspection planning and design, and optimize the planning design according to the simulation results. At present, BIM technology has been widely used in urban planning, especially in rail transit and bridges. From design to putting into use, BIM has achieved good results throughout the life cycle of the project.


6. Three-dimensional navigation


Nowadays, the industry wants to solve the problem of indoor positioning, but most of them focus on the means of positioning, such as whether it is WiFi or Bluetooth, LFC or NFC, etc., but indoor positioning maps are generally two-dimensional electronic buildings. The map is generated, even just a schematic diagram; the outdoor map navigation is really three-dimensional, and the indoor navigation also uses two-dimensional lines. But if there is BIM, then the problem can be solved: the internal model of the building provided by BIM can be used for 3D navigation.


With the development of architectural design and construction technology, the architectural styles are different, the volume is getting bigger and bigger, the internal structure of the building is more and more complex, and people's activities are not indoors or outdoors, in high-rise buildings and large indoor buildings. Especially when the logo is not clear and clear, people are more likely to lose their way, especially in shopping malls, activity centers, hospitals, etc. Even if people with good sense of direction want to understand the southeast and northwest, it is not easy. Therefore, people's demand for indoor navigation is no less than outdoor navigation.


However, the few indoor navigation maps are just two-dimensional electronic maps, even just schematics. It is also not very convenient to use, and BIM and GIS can just solve this problem. The mature 3D GIS platform has already supported the access of IoT data. Combined with the characteristics of the BIM building model, it can easily simulate real-world situational positioning. The application aspect is of course wide, such as searching for exhibition halls in museums, looking for storefronts in shopping malls, and hospitals. Look for departments, find classrooms in schools, etc.


7. Fire management


Compared with the traditional fire safety management of buildings, due to the three-dimensional characteristics of the BIM model, it can visually display the internal structure of the building, the layout of the fire position and the state of the fire exit, etc., and solve the soft conflicts and hard conflicts through collision check, and promote the synergy of different professions. Fire simulation and personnel evacuation simulation provide a basis for new building engineering fire protection design.


The BIM model contains all the information of each major and each stage of the project life cycle, including not only the building components, but also the rich family library and self-built family file functions, and can establish fire extinguishing equipment such as fire extinguishers, fire detectors, fire hydrants, etc. Various parameter information of the fire-fighting equipment can be provided, and the fire-fighting information can be integrated into the BIM model, and the corresponding fire-fighting plan can be formulated to guide the fire rescue work. In the operation and maintenance stage, by integrating the BIM database into the intelligent fire protection system design, combined with automatic control, sensors, computer network and other technologies, the active fire prevention function and passive fire prevention function are realized through the system platform to achieve the best fire protection.


8. Environmental simulation


The continuous advancement of various disaster safety projects has greatly reduced fire accidents and casualties. Although this is good news, this development has also led to problems that have never been encountered: due to the fact that disasters are not frequent, the actual experience gained by fire officers and soldiers is decreasing. This has led to a reduction in the actual experience of firefighters and the commanding skills of the fire. Disaster environment simulation is an effective way to solve the problem of skill regression.


Through the combination of BIM and GIS technology, the integrated 3D modeling technology, artificial intelligence, acoustic thermal photoelectric and other enhanced somatosensory technologies are used to construct accurate and realistic VR panoramic disaster scenes, and immersed through VR glasses, handles and voice dialogue modes. Human-computer interaction exercises to train and train the fire officers and soldiers' safety awareness and fire fighting capabilities. At the same time, the VR exercise system also combines the current Internet technology to achieve multi-person team exercises, and enhances the firefighting group's ability to deal with sudden disasters and safety quality in a scene-based teaching mode.


9. Architectural design and management


The traditional construction site safety monitoring is mainly carried out by the construction party unilaterally. The handling of safety affairs is greatly affected by the manager's experience, and it has a large one-sidedness and limitation, which is not conducive to the handling of safety affairs. The system realizes the fine management of construction engineering and the monitoring of the progress, safety and quality of the construction site through BIM technology, GIS technology, mobile computing and Internet of Things. When the progress lags, the weekly report and progress analysis of the item management and the general package are analyzed through the BIM model of the decision-making side. From the design stage, the collaborative safety analysis, monitoring and processing are integrated by the multi-party participating in the project of owner, design and construction. Integrate the management resources of all parties to solve the security problems in the project in a timely manner. Each participant can view the system in real time through BIM, and the security status data information is automatically updated at a glance.